Willingness to change car use under a tradable driving credits scheme: A comparison between Beijing and the Netherlands


  • Nico Dogterom Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • Yue Bao School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China
  • Meng Xu School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China
  • Dick Ettema Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands




tradable driving credits, car use, travel demand management, willingness to change, Beijing, the Netherlands


Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the concept of tradable driving credits (TDC) as an alternative to road pricing and driving restriction measures. However, empirical research into drivers’ responses to a TDC measure is limited and even lacking for the Chinese context where the concept of TDC has attracted considerable attention. This paper reports the results of a survey that was the first to investigate drivers’ willingness to change car use under a hypothetical distance-based TDC measure in China (Beijing) and aimed to compare these results with the results of a comparative Dutch survey. We observed that willingness to change was considerably higher in Beijing than in the Netherlands and that a substantial share of Beijing car owners indicated an increase in car use. In both contexts, higher education and higher car use intensity had a positive effect on the willingness to change, whereas higher income had a negative effect. We found mixed results for household size, respondents’ car attitudes, and TDC scenario characteristics.


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How to Cite

Dogterom, N., Bao, Y., Xu, M., & Ettema, D. (2018). Willingness to change car use under a tradable driving credits scheme: A comparison between Beijing and the Netherlands. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2018.1039