Home telework, travel behavior, and land-use patterns: A path analysis of British single-worker households
Keywords:Teleworking, path analysis, land use, commuting, travel modes, travel purposes
AbstractThis work analyzes the effects of home-based teleworking on the number of trips and weekly miles travelled by mode and purpose for one-worker households in Great Britain using data from the National Travel Survey for the period between 2005 and 2012. Two path analysis models are developed, one considering weekly trips and travel distances by mode and the other weekly trips and travel distances by purpose. Both models consider teleworking frequency in the context of home and workplace land-use characteristics, commuting distance, car ownership levels and weekly trips and travel distances. This framework allows us to explicitly model endogenous relations in the chains of decisions relating these variables. The results suggest that home-based teleworking is a strategy used by people to cope with long and costly commutes. Workers living in less transit accessible areas and with longer commutes tend to work from home more frequently. The main conclusions relating to teleworking frequency point to the fact that it increases weekly miles travelled, particularly by car, while it does not reduce commuting distances travelled. These results suggest that home-based teleworking is not an effective travel demand management strategy, particularly because it seems to increase car use. The overall main result is that teleworkers travel more by more polluting transport modes.
Choo, S., Mokhtarian, P., & Salomon, I. (2005). Does telecommuting reduce vehicle-miles traveled? An aggregate time series analysis for the U.S. Transportation, 32, 37–64. doi.org/10.1007/s11116-004-3046-7
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. Hoboken: Wiley
de Abreu e Silva, J., Golob, T. F., & Goulias, K. G. (2006). The effects of land-use characteristics on residence and employment location and travel behavior of urban adult workers. Transportation Research Record, 1977, 121–131. doi.org/10.3141/1977-17
de Abreu e Silva, J., Morency, C., & Goulias, K. G. (2012). Using structural equations modeling to unravel the influence of land use patterns on travel behavior of workers in Montreal. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 48(8), 1252–1264. doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2012.05.003
de Graaff, T., & Rietveld, P. (2004). ICT and substitution between out-of-home and at-home work: The importance of timing. Environment and Planning A, 36(5), 879–896. doi.org/10.1068/a3693
Ettema, D. (2010). The impact of telecommuting on residential relocation and residential preferences: A latent class modelling approach. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 3(1), 7–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.v3i1.61
Giuliano, G. (1989). Research policy and review 27. New directions for understanding transportation and land use. Environment and Planning A, 21(2),145–159. doi.org/10.1068/a210145
Golledge, R., & Garling, T. (2003). K. G. Goulias (Ed.), Spatial behavior in transportation modeling and planning in transportation systems planning, methods and applications. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Golob, T. F. (2003). Structural equation modeling for travel behavior research. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 37(1), 1–25. doi.org/10.1016/S0191-2615(01)00046-7
Hamer, R., Kroes, E., & Van Oosttsroom, H. (1991). Teleworking in the Netherlands: An evaluation of changes in travel behavior. Transportation, 18, 365–382. doi.org/10.1007/BF00186565
Helminen, V., & Ristimäki, M. (2007). Relationships between commuting distance, frequency and telework in Finland. Journal of Transport Geography, 15, 331–342. doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2006.12.004
He, S.Y., & Hu, L. (2015). Telecommuting, income, and out-of-home activities. Travel Behavior and Society, 2(3), 131–147. doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2014.12.003
Henderson, D. K., Koenig, B. E., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (1996). Using travel diary data to estimate the emissions impacts of transportation strategies: The Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration Project. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 46, 47–57. doi.rog/10.1080/10473289.1996.10467440
Hjorthol, R., & Nossum, Å. (2007). Teleworking - Possible Interaction with Travel Patterns. In Transport, A. F. E., European Transport Conference, Leiden, Netherlands.
Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL ® 8: Structural equation modelling with the SIMPLIS command language. Skokie, IL: SSI Scientific Software International.
Kaplan, D. (2000). Structural equation modeling. Foundations and extensions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kim, S.-N., Mokhtarian, P., & Ahn, K.-H. (2012). The Seoul of Alonso: New perspectives on telecommuting and residential location from South Korea. Urban Geography, 33(8), 1163–1191. doi.org/10.2747/0272-3622.214.171.1243
Kim, S.-N., Choo, S., & Moktharian, P. L. (2015). Home-based telecommuting and intra-household interactions in work and non-work travel: A seemingly unrelated censored regression approach. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 80, 197–214. doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2015.07.018
Kitamura, R., Nilles, J. M., Conroy, P., & Fleming, D. M. (1991). Telecommuting as a transportation planning measure: Initial results of California pilot project. Transportation Research Record, 1285, 98–104.
Lund, J. R., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (1994). Telecommuting and residential location: Theory and implications for commute travel in monocentric metropolis. Transportation Research Record, 1463, 10–14.
Melo, P. C., & de Abreu e Silva, J. (2017). Home telework and household commuting patterns in Great Britain. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 103, 1–24. doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2017.05.011
Mokhtarian, P. L., & Bagley, M. N. (2000). Modeling employees’ perceptions and proportional preferences of work locations: The regular workplace and telecommuting alternatives. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 34(4), 223–242. doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(99)00002-6
Mokhtarian, P. L., Collantes, G. O., & Gertz, C. (2004). Telecommuting, residential location, and commute-distance traveled: Evidence from state of California employees. Environment and Planning A, 36, 1877–1897. doi.org/10.1068/a36218
Mokthtarian, P. L., Handy, S. L., & Salomon, I. (1995). Methodological issues in the estimation of the travel, energy, and air quality impacts of telecommuting. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 29, 283–302. doi.org/10.1016/0965-8564(94)00029-A
Mokhtarian, P. L., & Salomon, I. (1997). Modeling the desire to telecommute: The importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 31, 35–50. doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(96)00010-9
Mokhtarian, P. (2009). If telecommunication is such a good substitute for travel, why does congestion continue to get worse? Transportation Letters, 1(1), 1–17. doi.org/10.3328/TL.2009.01.01.1-17
Muhammad, S., Ottens, H. F. L., Ettema, D., & de Jong, T. (2007). Telecommuting and residential locational preferences: A case study of the Netherlands. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 22(4), 339–358. doi.org/10.1007/s10901-007-9088-3
Nilles, J. M. (1991). Telecommuting and urban sprawl: Mitigator or inciter? Transportation, 18, 411–432. doi.org/10.1007/BF00186567
Nelson, P., Safirova, E., & Walls, M. (2007). Telecommuting and environmental policy: Lessons from the e-commute program. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 12(3), 195–207. doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2007.01.011
Nurul Habib, K. M., Sasic, A., & Zaman, H. (2012). Investigating telecommuting considerations in the context of commuting mode choice. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 6(6), 362–383. doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2011.621014
Ory, D. T., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (2006). Which came first, the telecommuting or the residential relocation? An empirical analysis of causality. Urban Geography, 27, 590–609. doi.org/10.2747/0272-36126.96.36.1990
Páez, A., & Scott, D. M. (2007). Social influence on travel behavior: A simulation example of the decision to telecommute. Environment and Planning A, 39(3), 647–665. doi.org/10.1068/a37424
Pendyala, R. M., Goulias, K. G., & Kitamura, R. (1991). Impact of telecommuting on spatial and temporal patterns of household travel. Transportation, 18, 383–409. doi.org/10.1007/BF00186566
Peters, P., Tijdens, K. G., & Wetzels, C. (2004). Employees’ opportunities, preferences, and practices in telecommuting adoption. Information and Management, 41(4), 469–482. doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7206(03)00085-5
Poury, Y. D., & Bhat, C. R. (2003). On modeling choice and frequency of home-based telecommuting. Transportation Research Record, 1858, 55–60. doi.org/10.3141/1858-08
Rhee, H. J. (2008). Home-based telecommuting and commuting behavior. Journal of Urban Economics, 63(1),198–216. doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2007.01.007
Salomon, I. (1998). Technological change and social forecasting: The case of telecommuting as a travel substitute. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 6(1–2), 17–45. doi.org/10.1016/S0968-090X(98)00006-0
Saxena, S., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (1997). The impact of telecommuting on the activity spaces of participants and their households. Geographical Analysis, 29, 124–144. doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.1997.tb00952.x
Singh, P., Paleti, R., Jenkins, S., & Bhat, C. R. (2013). On modeling telecommuting behavior: Option, choice, and frequency. Transportation, 40, 373–396. doi.org/10.1007/s11116-012-9429-2
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23–74.
Schumaker, R., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner´s guide to structural equation modeling, 2nd Edition. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tayyaran, M. R., & Khan, A. M. (2003). The effects of telecommuting and intelligent transportation systems on urban development. Journal of Urban Technology, 10(2), 87–100. doi.org/10.1080/1063073032000139714
Wells, K., Douma, F., Loimer, H., Olson, L., & Pansing, C. (2001). Telecommuting implications for travel behavior: Case studies from Minnesota. Transportation Research Record, 1752, 148–156. doi.org/10.3141/1752-20
Yen, J. R. (2000). Interpreting employee telecommuting adoption: An economics perspective. Transportation, 27(1),149–164. doi.org/10.1023/A:1005200513201
Zhu, P. (2012). Are telecommuting and personal travel complements or substitutes? The Annals of Regional Science, 48, 619–639. doi.org/10.1007/s00168-011-0460-6
Zhu, P. (2013). Telecommuting, household commute and location choice. Urban Studies, 50, 2441–2459. doi.org/10.1177/0042098012474520
Zhu, P., & Mason, S. G. (2014). The impact of telecommuting on personal vehicle usage and environmental sustainability. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11, 2185–2200. doi.org/10.1007/s13762-014-0556-5
How to Cite
Authors who publish with JTLU agree to the following terms: 1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.