Stated choice model of transport modes including solar bike

Pauline van den Berg, Suzette Vinken, Karst Geurs, Theo Arentze


In the Netherlands, e-bike ownership and use has rapidly increased over the last decade. A new type of e-bike, the solar bike, has recently been developed. The solar bike is an electric bike with solar panels in the front wheel that charges through sunlight. The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the factors affecting people’s choice between different transport modes, including car, public transport, regular bike, e-bike and solar bike. Based on a stated choice experiment among 308 respondents, a mixed logit error components model for transport mode choice was estimated. The results show that the solar bike is preferred for medium-length trips during daylight and in good weather. Land-use attributes such as good bike lanes, secured bike parking, congested roads and paid parking also have a positive effect on choosing a solar bike over a car. In addition, a latent class model was estimated to segment respondents according to their base preferences for transport modes. Three segments were identified: a segment with a preference for the solar bike, a segment of car lovers and a segment with a preference for public transport and a regular bike. Chi-square and ANOVA tests show that solar bike affinity is related to being female, older, Dutch, and having a positive attitude toward e-bike, solar bike, innovation and the environment.


solar bike, cycling, state choice, mode choice, e-bike

Full Text:



Astegiano, P., Tampère, C., & Beckx, C. (2015). A preliminary analysis over the factors related with the possession of an electric bike. Transportation Research Procedia, 10, 393–402.

Bovag-RAI. (2015). Mobility in figures. Two wheelers 2015. Retrieved from

Braun, L., Rodriguez, D., Cole-Hunter, T., Ambros, A., Donaire-Gonzalez, D., Jerrett, M., Mendez, M. A., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., & De Nazelle, A. (2016) Short-term planning and policy interventions to promote cycling in urban centers: Findings from a commute mode choice analysis in Barcelona, Spain. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 89, 164–183.

Buehler, R., & Pucher, J. (2011). Cycling to work in 90 large American cities: New evidence on the role of bike paths and lanes. Transportation, 39(2), 409–432.

Cherry, C., & Cervero, R. (2007). Use characteristics and mode choice behavior of electric bike users in China. Transport Policy 14(3), 247–257.

Dill, J., & Rose, G. (2012). Electric bikes and transportation policy. Insights from early adopters. Transportation Research Record, 2314, 1–6.

Fyhri, A., & Fearnley, N. (2015). Effects of e-bikes on bicycle use and mode share. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 36, 45–52.

De Geus., B., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Jannes, C., &Meeusen, R. (2008). Psychosocial and environmental factors associated with cycling for transport among a working population. Health Education Research, 23(4), 697–708.

Greene, W. H., & Hensher, D. A. (2003). A latent class model for discrete choice analysis: Contrasts with mixed logit. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 37(8), 681–698.

Hamre, A., & Buehler, R. (2014), Commuter mode choice and tree car parking, public transportation benefits, showers/lockers, and bike parking at work: Evidence from the Washington, DC, region. Journal of Public Transportation, 17(2), 67–91.

Haustein, S., & Møller, M. (2016). Age and attitude: Changes in cycling patterns of different e-bike user segments. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 10(9), 836–846.

Heinen, E., van Wee, B., & Maat, K. (2010). Commuting by bicycle: An overview of the literature. Transport Reviews, 30(1), 59–96.

Hess, D. B. (2001). Effect of free parking on commuter model choice: Evidence from travel diary data. Transportation Research Record, 1753(1), 35–42.

Hoehner, C. M., Ramirez, L. K. B., Elliott, M. B., Handy, S. L., & Brownson, R. C. (2005). Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2), 105–116.

Johnson, M., & Rose, G. (2015). Extending life on the bike: Electric bike use by older Australians. Journal of Transport and Health, 2, 276–283.

Jones, T., Harms, L., & Heinen, E. (2016). Motives, perceptions and experiences of electric bicycle owners and implications for health, wellbeing and mobility. Journal of Transport Geography, 53, 41–49.

Kroesen, M. (2017). To what extent do e-bikes substitute travel by other modes? Evidence from the Netherlands. Transportation Research Part D, 53, 377–387.

Lee, A., Molin, E., Maat, K., & Sierzchula, W. (2015). Electric bicycle use and mode choice in the Netherlands. Transportation Research Record, 2520, 1–7.

MacArthur, J., Dill, J., & Person, M. (2014). Electric bikes in North America: Results of an online survey. Transportation Research Record, 2468, 123–130.

Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, & Fietsberaad. (2009). Cycling in the Netherlands. Den Haag: Center of Expertise on Bicycle Policy.

Molin, E., & Timmermans, H. (2010). Context dependent stated choice experiments: The case of train egress mode choice. Journal of Choice Modelling, 3, 39–56.

Parkin, J., Wardman, M., & Page, M. (2008). Estimation of the determinants of bicycle mode share for the journey to work using census data. Transportation, 35, 93–109.

Piatkowski, D., & Marshall, W. (2015). Not all prospective bicyclist are created equal: The role of attitudes, socio-demographics, and the built environment in bicycle commuting. Travel Behavior and Society, 2(3), 166–173.

Rietveld., P., & Daniel, V. (2004). Determinants of bicycle use: Do municipal policies matter? Transportation Research. Part A – Policy & Practice, 38, 531–550.

Ryley, T. (2006). Use of non-motorized and life stage in Edinburgh. Journal of Transport Geography, 14, 367–375.

Santos, G., Maoh, H., Potoglou, D., & Von Brunn, T. (2013). Factors influencing modal split of commuting journeys in medium-size European cities. Journal of Transport Geography, 30, 127–137.

Statistics Netherlands. (2016). CBS Statline. Retrieved from

Van den Berg, P., Vinken, S., Geurs, K., & Arentze, T. (2017) Modeling solar bike purchase intention. Paper to be presented at the 2017 TRB Annual Meeting, January 8–12, Washington, DC.

Wolf, A., & Seebauer, S. (2014) Technology adoption of electric bicycles: A survey among early adopters. Transportation Research A, 69, 196–211.


Copyright (c) 2018 Pauline van den Berg, Suzette Vinken, Karst Geurs, Theo Arentze