The impact of ride hailing on parking (and vice versa)


  • Alejandro Henao National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
  • Wesley E. Marshall University of Colorado Denver



Ride-hailing, Ridesourcing, TNC, Uber, Lyft, Parking, Curb space, TDM


Investigating emerging transportation services is critical to forecasting mode choice and providing appropriate infrastructure. One such infrastructure is parking, as parking demand may shift with the availability of ride-hailing services. This study uses ethnographic methods—complemented with passenger surveys collected when driving for Uber and Lyft in the Denver, Colorado, region—to gather quantitative and qualitative data on ride-hailing and analyze the impacts of ride-hailing on parking, including changes in parking demand and parking as a reason to deter driving. The study also examines relationships between parking time and cost. This includes building a classification tree-based model to predict the replaced driving trips as a function of car ownership, destination land type, parking stress, and demographics. The results suggest that: i) ride-hailing is replacing driving trips and could reduce parking demand, particularly at land uses such as airports, event venues, restaurants, and bars; ii) parking stress is a key reason respondents chose not to drive; and iii) respondents are generally willing to pay more for reduced parking time and distance. Conversely, parking supply, time, and cost can all influence travel behavior and ride-hailing use. This study provides insight into potential benefits and disadvantages of ride-hailing as related to parking.

Author Biographies

Alejandro Henao, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Researcher | Mobility Systems

Wesley E. Marshall, University of Colorado Denver

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering


Breiman, L., Friedman, J., Stone, C. J., & Olshen, R. A. (1984). Classification and regression trees. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press.

Brewer, J. (2000). Ethnography. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Brooke, S., Ison, S., & Quddus, M. (2014). On-street parking search. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2469, 65–75.

Clewlow, R. R., & Mishra, G. S. (2017). Disruptive transportation: The adoption, utilization, and impacts of ride-hailing in the United States. Retrieved from

Guo, Z. (2013). Does residential parking supply affect household car ownership? The case of New York City. Journal of Transport Geography, 26, 18–28.

Hampshire, R. C., Simek, C., Fabusuyi, T., Di, X., & Chen, X. (2017). Measuring the impact of an unanticipated suspension of ride-sourcing in Austin, Texas. Retrieved from

Henao, A. (2017). Impacts of ridesourcing—Lyft and Uber—on transportation including VMT, mode replacement, parking, and travel behavior. Denver: University of Colorado at Denver.

Henao, A., & Marshall, W. E. (2018). The impact of ride-hailing on vehicle miles traveled. Transportation.

Henao, A., Sperling, J., Garikapati, V., Hou, Y., & Young, S. E. (2018). Airport analyses informing new mobility shifts: Opportunities to adapt energy-efficient mobility services and infrastructure. Paper presented at the Intelligent Transportation Society of America, Detroit. National Renewable Energy Lab. NREL/CP-5400-71036. Retrieved from

Hess, D. (2001). Effect of free parking on commuter mode choice: Evidence from travel diary data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1753, 35–42.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 16(4), 473–475.

Mandle, P., & Box, S. (2017). Transportation network companies: Challenges and opportunities for airport operators. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Morris, D. Z. (2018, February 24). Yes, Uber really is killing the parking business. Fortune. Retrieved from

O’Reilly, K. (2012). Ethnographic methods. London: Routledge.

Rayle, L., Dai, D., Chan, N., Cervero, R., & Shaheen, S. (2016). Just a better taxi? A survey-based comparison of taxis, transit, and ridesourcing services in San Francisco. Transport Policy, 45, 168–178.

Ripley, B. (2005). Tree: Classification and regression trees. R package version, 1.0-19.

Shoup, D. C. (2006). Cruising for parking. Transport Policy, 13(6), 479–486.

Steele, J. (2018, February 22). Ace Parking says Uber, Lyft have cut parking business up to 50% in some venues. The San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved from

Suchetana, B., Rajagopalan, B., & Silverstein, J. (2017). Assessment of wastewater treatment facility compliance with decreasing ammonia discharge limits using a regression tree model. Science of The Total Environment, 598, 249–257.

U.S. Department of Transportation, FHA. (2017). 2017 National Household Travel Survey. Retrieved from

Vaccaro, A. (2016, December 05). Highly touted Boston-Uber partnership has not lived up to hype so far. Retrieved from

Weinberger, R. (2012). Death by a thousand curb-cuts: Evidence on the effect of minimum parking requirements on the choice to drive. Transport Policy, 20, 93–102.

Weinberger, R., Seaman, M., & Johnson, C. (2009). Residential off-street parking impacts on car ownership, vehicle miles traveled, and related carbon emissions. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2118, 24–30.

Wilson, R. W., & Shoup, D. C. (1990). Parking subsidies and travel choices: Assessing the evidence. Transportation, 17(2), 141–157.

Wilson, R. W. (1992). Estimating the travel and parking demand effects of employer-paid parking. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 22(1), 133–145.

Zipkin, A. (2017, December 11). Airports are losing money as ride-hailing services grow. NY Times. Retrieved from




How to Cite

Henao, A., & Marshall, W. E. (2019). The impact of ride hailing on parking (and vice versa). Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1).