Re-examination of the standards for transit oriented development influence zones in India
Keywords:Transit oriented development (TOD), influence zones, transit catchment areas, India, informal transport
AbstractTransit oriented development (TOD) is a land-use and transport integrated urban planning strategy that is highly acclaimed for promoting sustainable city development. This review aims to identify the problems regarding adoption of TOD standards or guidelines formulated by developed countries in developing countries, such as India, and the necessity of conducting adaptability studies on TOD influence areas. The existing studies show that the size of the influence area varies among different cities and travel modes. Accordingly, no single size influence zone is suitable for all cases. This review highlights the necessity of carefully considering the spatial extent of influence areas and modes other than walking as access or egress modes in the Indian context. Moreover, this review aims to provide insight on how to plan TOD in the context of developing countries, because the mobility patterns in these countries differ considerably from those in the developed world.
Agrawal, A. W., Schlossberg, M., & Ir, K. (2008). How far, by which route and why? A spatial analysis of pedestrian preference. Journal of Urban Design, 13(1), 81–98.
APTA. (2009). Defining transit areas of influence (APTA SUDS-UD-RP-001-09). Washington, DC: American Public Transportation Association.
Arasan, V., Rengaraju, R., & Krishna Rao, K. (1994). Characteristics of trips by foot and bicycle modes in Indian city. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 120(2), 283–294.
Arrington , G., & Cervero, R. (2008). Effects of TOD on housing, parking, and travel. (TCRP report 128) Washington, DC:Transportation Research Board.
Bernick , M., & Cervero, R. (1997). Transit villages for the 21st century. New York: McGraw Hill.
Bickelbacher, P. (2001). Bericht zur Vorheruntersuchung im MOBINET arbeitspaket A4 bike + ride. Munchen: SRL/SSP.
Boarnet, M., & Crane, R. (1998). L. A. story: A reality check for transit-based housing. Journal of the American Planning Association, 63(2), 189–204.
Calthorpe, A. (1992). Transit-oriented development design guidelines (Resolution no. R-280480). San Diego: Planning Department, City of San Diego.
Calthorpe, P. (1993). The next American metropolis: Ecology, community and the American dream. New Jersey: Princeton Architectural Press.
Carlton, I. (2007). Histories of transit-oriented development: Perspectives on the development of the TOD concept (WP-2009-02). Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Cervero, R. (1997). Rail access modes and catchment areas for the BART System. Berkeley, CA: University of California Transportation Center (UCTC).
Cervero, R. (2009). Public transport and sustainable urbanism: Global lessons. In J. L. Renne (Ed.), Transit oriented development — making it happen. London: Routledge.
Cervero, R., Bernick, M., & Jill, G. (1994). Market opportunities and barriers to transit-based development in California (working paper). Berkeley, CA: University of California Transportation Center.
Cervero, R., & Ewing, R. (2014). Travel and the built environment: A Synthesis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1780. doi.10.3141/1780-10
Cervero, R., & Kockelman, K. (1997). Travel demand and the 3Ds: Density, diversity, and design. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(3), 199–219.
Cervero, R., Ferrell, R., & Murphy, S. (2002). Transit-oriented development and joint development in the United States: A literature review. Research Results Digest, 52, 1–144.
Chia, J. C., & Lee, J. B. (2015). Variation in the walking time to bus stop by the degree of transit captivity. Australasian Transport Research Forum Proceedings. Retrieved from http://www.atrf.info/papers/index.aspx.
City of Redmond Planning Commission. (2014, March 19). www.remond.gov. Retrieved from http://www.redmond.gov/common/pages/UserFile.aspx?fileId=122774
Community Design + Architecture, I. (2001). Model transit-oriented district overlay zoning ordinance. Oakland, CA: Valley Connections.
Dittamar, H., & Ohland, G. (2004). The new transit town — best practices in transit oriented development. Washington, DC: Island Press.
DOT California. (2001). Factors for success in California’s transit-oriented development. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Transportation, Technical Advisory and Policy Steering Committee.
DOT Maryland. (2000). Report to Governor Parris N. Glendening from the Transit-Oriented Development Task Force. Hanover, MD: Maryland Department of Transportation.
Drechsler, J., & Kiesl, H. (2016). Beat the heap: An imputation strategy for valid inferences from rounded income data. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, 4, 22–42.
El-Geneidy, A., Grimsrud, M., Wasfi, R., Tétreault, P., & Legault, S. (2014). New evidence on walking distances to transit stops: Identifying redundancies and gaps using variable service areas. Transportation, 41(1), 193–210.
Embarq. (2014). Safe access to mass transit stations in Indian cities. In Safe access manual (Vol-1). New Delhi: WRI India.
Fillone, A. M., & Mateo-Babiano, I. (2018). Do I walk or ride the rickshaw? Examining the factors affecting first- and last-mile trip options in the historic district of Manila (Philippines). Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 237–254.
Flamm, B., & Rivasplata, C. (2014). Public transit catchment areas—the curious case of cycle-transit users. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2419, 101–108.
FTA. (2011). Final policy statement on eligibility of pedestrian and bicycle improvements – summary (Federal Register – FTA – 2009—0052). Washington, DC: Federal Transit Authority.
Gil, J., & Read, S. (2012). Measuring sustainable accessibility potential using the mobility infrastructure's network configuration. Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium, Santiago de Chile.
Guerra, E., Cervero, R., & Tischler, D. (2012). The half-mile circle: Does it best represent transit station catchments? Transportation Research, 2276, 101–109.
Guillen, M. D., Ishida, H., & Okamoto, N. (2013). Is the use of informal public transport modes in developing countries habitual? An empirical study in Davao City, Philippines. Transport Policy, 26, 31–42.
Gutiérrez , J., & Garcia Palomares, J. (2008). Distance-measure impacts on the calculation of transport service areas using GIS. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 35(3), 480–503.
Gutiérrez, J., Cardozo, O. D., & Garcia Palomares, J. C. (2011). Transit ridership forecasting at station level: An approach based on distance-decay weighted regression. Journal of Transport Geography, 19, 1081–1092.
Heitjan, D. F., & Rubin, D. B. (1990). Inference from coarse data via multiple imputation with application to age heaping. Journal of American Statistical Association, 85(410), 304–314.
Hochmair, H. (2013). Assessment of bicycle service areas around transit stations. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 1(1), 15–29.
Jiang, Y. P. (2012). Walk the line: Station context, corridor type, and bus rapid transit walk access in Jinan, China. Journal of Transport Geography, 20(1), 1–14.
Johar, A., Jain, S., Garg, P., & Gundaliya, P. (2015). A study for commuter walk distance from bus stops to different destinations along routes in Delhi. European Transport Issue, 59, 1825–3997.
Kachi , N., Kato , H., & Hayashi, Y. (2005). Making cities more compact by improving transport and amenity and reducing hazard. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 6, 3819–3834.
Ker, I., & Ginn, S. (2003). Myths and realities in walkable catchments: The case of walking and transit. Road & Transport Research, 12(2), 69–80.
Kumar, M., Singh, S., Ghate, A. T., Pal, S., & Wilson, S. A. (2016). Informal public transport modes in India: A case study of five city regions. IATSS Research, 39(2), 102–109.
Lee, J., Choi , K., & Leem, Y. (2016). Bicycle-based transit-oriented development as an alternative to overcome the criticisms of the conventional transit-oriented development. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 10(10), 975–984.
Loo, B., Chen, C., & Chan, E. (2010). Rail-based transit-oriented development: Lessons from New York City and Hong Kong. Landscape and Urban Planning, 97(3), 202–212.
Lund, H., Cervero, R., & Wilson, R. (2004). Travel characteristics of transit-oriented development in California (Transportation grant, statewide planning studies, FTA section 5313b). California: Caltrans.
Martens, K. (2004). The bicycle as a feedering mode: Experiences from three European countries. Transportation Research Part D, 9, 281–294.
MoHUA, M. (2017a). Metro Rail Policy. New Delhi: Government of India.
MoHUA, M. (2017b). Proposed green urban mobility scheme. New Delhi: Government of India.
Morrall, J., & O’Sullivan , S. (1996). Walking distances to and from light-rail transit stations. Transportation Research Record, 1538, 19–26.
MoUD, M. (2015). National transit oriented development (TOD) policy. New Delhi: Government of India.
MoUD, M. (2016). TOD guidance document. New Delhi: Government of India.
O'Connor, D., & Harrison, O. (2012). Rail catchment analysis in the greater Dublin area. Proceedings of Irish Transport Research Network. Dublin: School of Transport Engineering, Environment and Planning.
O’Sullivan, S., & Morrall, J. (1995). Walking distance to and from light-rail transit station. Transportation Research Record, 1538(1). doi.org/10.3141/2006-13
Park, S., Deakin, E., & Jang, K. (2015). Can good walkability expand the size of transit-oriented developments? Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2519, 157–164.
Rastogi, R. (2010). Willingness to shift to walking or bicycling to access suburban rail: Case study of Mumbai, India. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 136(1). doi.10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9488(2010)136:1(3)
Rastogi, R. (2011). Promotion of non-motorized modes as a sustainable transportation option: Policy and planning issues. Current Science, (100)9, 1340–1348.
Rastogi, R., & Krishna Rao, K. (2003). Travel characteristics of commuters accessing transit: A case study. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 129(6), 684–694.
Renne, J. L. (2009). Transit oriented development—making it happen. London: Routledge.
Rietveld, P. (2000). Non-motorised modes in transport systems: A multimodal chain perspective for the Netherlands. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 5, 31–36.
Rodrigue, J. P. (2017). The geography of transport systems. New York: Routledge.
Salvensen, D. (1996). Promoting transit oriented development. Urban Land, 55(7), 31–35.
Shastry, S. (2010). Spatial assessment of transit oriented development in Ahmedaba (MS thesis). Enschede, Netherlands: University of Twente.
Still, T. (2002). Transit-oriented development: Reshaping America’s metropolitan landscape. On Common Ground, 44–47.
Sung, H. (2011). Transit-oriented development in a high-density city: Identifying its association with transit ridership in Seoul, Korea. Cities, 28, 70–82.
Taylor, D., & Mahmassani, H. (1996). Analysis of stated preferences for intermodal bicycle-transit interfaces. Transportation Research Record, 1556, 87–95.
Thomas, R., Pojani, D., Lenferink, S., Bertolini, L., Dominic, S., & van der Krabben, E. (2018). Is transit-oriented development (TOD) an internationally transferable policy concept? Regional Studies, 52, 1201–1213.
Untermann, R. (1984). Accommodating the pedestrian: Adapting towns and neighborhoods for walking and biking. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
UTTIPEC. (2012). Transit oriented development — policy, norms, guidelines. New Delhi: Delhi Development Authority.
Van Goeverden, C., & Egeter, B. (1993). Gecombineerd gebruik van fiets en openbaar vervoer: Verwachte effecten opde vervoerwijzekeuze van optimale fietsbeschikbaarheid. Delft: Voor-en Natransport. TU Delft, Faculteit der Civiele.
Wilson, S. A. (2013). Ahmedabad: Leapfrogging from medieval to modern mobility. In Megacity mobility culture: How cities move on in a diverse world (pp. 67-87). Munich: Springer.
Zhao, F., Chow, L.-F., Li, M.-T., & Gan, A. (2003). Forecasting transit walk accessibility: A regression model alternative to the buffer method. TRB 2003 Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
Zielstra , D., & Hochmair, H. (2011). Comparative study of pedestrian accessibility to transit stations using free and proprietary network data. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2217, 145–152.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with JTLU agree to the following terms: 1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.