Shifting perspectives: A comparison of travel-time-based and carbon-based accessibility landscapes
Keywords:CO2 emissions, accessibility planning, climate change mitigation, low carbon mobility options
Undoubtedly, climate change and its mitigation have emerged as main topics in public discourse. While accessibility planning is recognized for supporting sustainable urban and transport development in general, the specific challenge of reducing transport-related greenhouse gas emissions has rarely been directly addressed. Traditionally, accessibility is operationalized in line with the user perception of the transport system. Travel-time-based measures are considered to be closely linked with travel behavior theory, whereas CO2 emissions are not necessarily a major determinant of travel decisions. Given the changed prioritization of objectives, additional emphasis should be placed on the environmental costs of travel rather than solely the user costs. Accessibility analysis could account for this shift in perspectives by using CO2 emissions instead of travel time in the underlying cost function. While losing predictive power in terms of travel behavior compared to other implementations of accessibility, carbon-based accessibility analysis enables a normative understanding of travel behavior as it ought to be. An application in the Munich region visualizes the differences between travel-time-based and carbon-based accessibility by location, transport mode, and specification of the accessibility measure. The emerging accessibility landscapes illustrate the ability of carbon-based accessibility analysis to provide new insights into land use and transport systems from a different perspective. Based on this exercise, several use cases in the context of low-carbon mobility planning are discussed and pathways to further develop and test the method in cooperation with decision-makers are outlined.
Banister, D. (2008). The sustainable mobility paradigm. Transport Policy, 15(2), 73–80. https://doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2007.10.005
Banister, D. (2011). Cities, mobility and climate change. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1538–1546.
Barla, P., Miranda-Moreno, L. F., & Lee-Gosselin, M. (2011). Urban travel CO2 emissions and land use: A case study for Quebec City. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 16(6), 423–428. https://doi:10.1016/j.trd.2011.03.005
Benenson, I., Martens, K., Rofé, Y., & Kwartler, A. (2011). Public transport versus private car GIS-based estimation of accessibility applied to the Tel Aviv metropolitan area. The Annals of Regional Science, 47(3), 499–515.
Bertolini, L. (2017). Planning the mobile metropolis. Transport for people, places and the planet. London: Palgrave.
Bertolini, L., Le Clercq, F., & Kapoen, L. (2005). Sustainable accessibility: A conceptual framework to integrate transport and land use plan-making. Two test-applications in the Netherlands and a reflection on the way forward. Transport Policy, 12(3), 207–220.
BMU. (2016). Climate Action Plan 2050. Principles and goals of the German government's climate policy. Berlin: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.
BMU. (2019). Klimaschutz in Zahlen. Fakten, Trends und Impulse deutscher Klimapolitik. Berlin: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.
BMVI. (2017). Mobilität in Tabellen (MiT 2017). Retrieved from http://www.mobilitaet-in-deutschland.de/MiT2017.html
Büttner, B. (2017). Consequences of sharp increases in mobility costs on accessibility. Suggestions for individual and public development strategies (Ph.D. dissertation). Technical University of Munich, Munich.
Büttner, B., Ji, C., & Wulfhorst, G. (2019). The TUM accessibility atlas: A tool for research and practice. In C. Silva, L. Bertolini, & N. Pinto (Eds.), Designing accessibility instruments: Lessons on their usability for integrated land use and transport planning practices (pp. 120-131). New York: Routledge.
Chapman, L. (2007). Transport and climate change: A review. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(5), 354–367.
Cheng, J., & Bertolini, L. (2013). Measuring urban job accessibility with distance decay, competition and diversity. Journal of Transport Geography, 30, 100–109. https://doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.03.005
Cui, M., & Levinson, D. (2018). Full cost analysis of accessibility. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1) 661–679. https://doi:10.5198/jtlu.2018.1042
Cui, M., & Levinson, D. (2019). Measuring full cost accessibility by auto. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 649–672. https://doi:10.5198/jtlu.2019.1495
Curtis, C., & Scheurer, J. (2010). Planning for sustainable accessibility: Developing tools to aid discussion and decision-making. Progress in Planning, 74(2), 53–106. https://doi:10.1016/j.progress.2010.05.001
DB. (2019). Grundlagenbericht zum UmweltMobilCheck. Retrieved from https://www.deutschebahn.com/resource/blob/4390084/aaf9ae78149111f1b772ed493736b258/grundlagenbericht-data.pdf
EEA. (2019). Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2017 and inventory report 2019. Retrieved from https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/european-union-greenhouse-gas-inventory-2019
El-Geneidy, A., Levinson, D., Diab, E., Boisjoly, G., Verbich, D., & Loong, C. (2016). The cost of equity: Assessing transit accessibility and social disparity using total travel cost. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 91, 302–316. https://doi:10.1016/j.tra.2016.07.003
Follmer, R., & Gruschwitz, D. (2019). Mobilität in Deutschland–MiD Kurzreport. Ausgabe 4.0. Retrieved from www.mobilitaet-in-deutschland.de
Ford, A., Dawson, R., Blythe, P., & Barr, S. (2018). Land-use transport models for climate change mitigation and adaptation planning. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1) 83–101. https://doi:10.5198/jtlu.2018.1209
Geels, F. W. (2012). A socio-technical analysis of low-carbon transitions: Introducing the multi-level perspective into transport studies. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 471–482.
Geurs, K., & Van Wee, B. (2004). Accessibility evaluation of land-use and transport strategies: Review and research directions. Journal of Transport Geography, 12(2), 127–140.
Hägerstrand, T. (1970). What about people in regional science? Papers of the Regional Science Association, 24, 7–21.
Handy, S., & Niemeier, D. (1997). Measuring accessibility: An exploration of issues and alternatives. Environment and Planning A, 29(7), 1175–1194.
Heinen, E., & Mattioli, G. (2019). Multimodality and CO2 emissions: A relationship moderated by distance. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 75, 179–196. https://doi:10.1016/j.trd.2019.08.022
Higgins, C. D. (2019). Accessibility toolbox for R and ArcGIS. Transport Findings. https://doi:10.32866/8416
INFRAS. (2017). HBEFA version 3.3. Retrieved from http://www.hbefa.net/e/documents/HBEFA33_Hintergrundbericht.pdf
Kinigadner, J., Büttner, B., & Wulfhorst, G. (2019). Beer versus bits: CO2-based accessibility analysis of firms’ location choices and implications for low carbon workplace development. Applied Mobilities, 4(2), 200–218. https://doi:10.1080/23800127.2019.1572053
Kwan, M.-P. (1998). Space‐time and integral measures of individual accessibility: A comparative analysis using a point‐based framework. Geographical Analysis, 30(3), 191–216.
Lewis, R., Zako, R., Biddle, A., & Isbell, R. (2018). Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation and land use: Lessons from West Coast states. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 343–366. https://doi:10.5198/jtlu.2018.1173
Loo, B., & Tsoi, K. H. (2018). The sustainable transport pathway: A holistic strategy of five transformations. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 961–980. https://doi:10.5198/jtlu.2018.1354
Maget, C., Pillat, J., & Waßmuth, V. (2019). Transport demand model for the free state of Bavaria – basis for local transport planning. Transportation Research Procedia, 41, 219–228.
Marsden, G., Ferreira, A., Bache, I., Flinders, M., & Bartle, I. (2014). Muddling through with climate change targets: A multi-level governance perspective on the transport sector. Climate Policy, 14(5), 617–636.
Metropolregion München. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.metropolregion-muenchen.eu/
Ostrom, E. (2010). Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 20(4), 550–557. https://doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.07.004
Páez, A., Scott, D. M., & Morency, C. (2012). Measuring accessibility: Positive and normative implementations of various accessibility indicators. Journal of Transport Geography, 25, 141–153. https://doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.03.016
Papa, E., Silva, C., Te Brömmelstroet, M., & Hull, A. (2016). Accessibility instruments for planning practice: A review of European experiences. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 9(3), 57–75. https://doi:10.5198/jtlu.2015.585
Salonen, M., Broberg, A., Kyttä, M., & Toivonen, T. (2014). Do suburban residents prefer the fastest or low-carbon travel modes? Combining public participation GIS and multimodal travel time analysis for daily mobility research. Applied Geography, 53, 438–448. https://doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.06.028
Salonen, M., & Toivonen, T. (2013). Modelling travel time in urban networks: Comparable measures for private car and public transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 31, 143–153. https://doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.06.011
Schmied, M., & Mottschall, M. (2014). Berechnung des Energieverbrauchs und der Treibhausgasemissionen des ÖPNV. Retrieved from https://www.bmvi.de/SharedDocs/DE/Anlage/G/energieverbrauch-treibhausgasemission-oepnv.html
Schwanen, T. (2019). Transport geography, climate change and space: Opportunity for new thinking. Journal of Transport Geography, 81(C). https://doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.102530
Schwanen, T., Banister, D., & Anable, J. (2011). Scientific research about climate change mitigation in transport: A critical review. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45(10), 993–1006.
Te Brömmelstroet, M. (2010). Equip the warrior instead of manning the equipment. Land use and transport planning support in the Netherlands. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 3(1), 25–41. https://doi:10.5198/jtlu.v3i1.99
Te Brömmelstroet, M., Curtis, C., Larsson, A., & Milakis, D. (2016). Strengths and weaknesses of accessibility instruments in planning practice: Technological rules based on experiential workshops. European Planning Studies, 24(6), 1175–1196.
UBA. (2016). Fahrgemeinschaften. Retrieved from https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/umwelttipps-fuer-den-alltag/mobilitaet/fahrgemeinschaften
UNFCCC. (2015). Paris Agreement. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement
US EPA. (2019). Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2017. Retrieved from https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/european-union-greenhouse-gas-inventory-2019
Vale, D. S. (2019). Calculate-accessibility. Retrieved from https://github.com/davidsvale/calculate-accessibility
Vale, D. S., & Pereira, M. (2016). The influence of the impedance function on gravity-based pedestrian accessibility measures: A comparative analysis. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 44(4), 740–763. https://doi:10.1177/0265813516641685
Wulfhorst, G., Büttner, B., & Ji, C. (2017). The TUM accessibility atlas as a tool for supporting policies of sustainable mobility in metropolitan regions. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 104, 121–136.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Julia Kinigadner, David Vale, Benjamin Büttner, Gebhard Wulfhorst
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with JTLU agree to the following terms: 1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.